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Doping in skiing ? A plague of sport to fight !


The problem is unfortunately widespread doping in sport, serious and worrying ! E 'practiced not only in top-level sport but often also in the amateur.

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And’ DOPING considered the use of substances or procedures intended to artificially increase the yield.

II Doping contravenes the ethics of sport is that of medical science.

Doping is: in the administration of substances belonging to the prohibited classes of pharmacological agents and / or the use of various methods prohibited.

The sports and government authorities, both Italian and international, They have always proved to underestimate the problem. The search results at all costs and growing economic interests, They have led to change the type of preparation introducing illegal and highly damaging methods.

The sports ethic has left the field to a turnover which reached dizzying levels (nearly one million lire a year just in our country) and the number of “practitioners” is evident ascent !

The countries of Eastern Europe have certainly played the pioneering role in this field often at the expense of health and even of life itself athletes. Very little was known of the side effects of ingested substances, while the improvements were evident. To the doctors and coaches was enough realized thanks to the results; athletes now pay the consequences.

We understand that solving the problem will be extremely difficult, complicated and expensive. They would need adequate facilities and series, much more severe penalties for those who practice it and especially for those who prescribe.

It should do sports ethics lever through a serious campaign of sports culture in young people. You could definitely do much more !! In all likelihood, unfortunately,, doping problem in the present and in today's society sports, we do not have a real solution.

THE FIGHT AGAINST DOPING:

The fight against doping was born in Italy in 1954. In 1961 It was opened in Florence the first European anti-doping laboratory. From 1964 (Tokyo Olympics) It began to carry out systematic doping controls on athletes. From 1971 in Italy there is a law that punishes both those who use banned substances, is who distributes them to athletes. In 1971 the International Olympic Committee published a list of banned substances which is periodically updated.

THE CURRENT SITUATION:

The Olympic Committee has created a number of committees and bodies which give the external idea of ​​a great commitment against doping, It was created an office with Anti-doping prosecutor lawyers and toxicologists to try to stem the spread of doping. It would be desirable to invest resources to the School Sport scientific structure CONI maybe able to truly combat the problem. Doping it makes a sports ignorance signal, a sports education deficit, including the limits that the school had about, should grow in the children an awareness of how important it is for their own health to adopt an active lifestyle, but at the same time teach you to win, but also to accept, without drama, not to be a champion.

Currently, medical chemistry and pharmacology allow the creation of more and more sophisticated, specific and hard to find.

The doping controls, They are often not able to detect doping substances also thanks to special “covering”.

Let us now try to clarify and understand what substances are included in the list, as it is regulated the problem, the effects and causes that the practice involves:

SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM C.I.O.

The IOC ruled that the practice of doping is contrary to the ethics of sport is that of medical science, and that is the administration of substances belonging to prohibited classes of pharmacological agents.

In summary, The following methods are prohibited and substance classes:

Stimulants

Amifenarolo, amphetamine, amineptina, cocaine, cropropamide, crotetamide, ephedrine, etamivan, etilefrina, fencamfamina, fenfluramina, MDEA, mesocarb, metilfenidato, norfenfluramina, pentilentetrazolo, pipradolo, stricnina, and related substances.

Caffeine

The concentration in urine may not exceed 12 micrograms per milliliter.

Salbutamolo, salmeterol and terbutaline

Permits only when taken by inhalation; the athlete must declare before the race.

Narcotics

Destropropossifene, diamorfina, etilmorfina, idrocodone, methadone, morphine, pentazocina, pethidine, propoxyphene and related substances; (They are permitted codeine, destrometorfano, diidrocodeina, defenossilato and pholcodine).

Anabolic

androgenic Steroids: boldenone, clostebolo, danazolo, deidroclormetiltestosterone, diidrotestosterone, drostenolone, fluoxymesterone, formebolone, mesterolone, metandienone, metenolone, nandrolone, ossandrolone, ossimesterone, oxymetholone, stanozololo, trenbolone and related substances.
Testosterone: It constitutes a violation of testosterone / epitestosterone ratio greater than six, unless it is proven that the fact is due to a physiological or pathological condition (examples: low epitestosterone excretion; enzyme deficiencies; tumors that produce androgens).
Beta-2 agonists: clenbuterolo, salbutamolo, terbutaline, salmetelolo, fenoterolo.

Diuretics

Acetazolamide, bumetamide, chlorthalidone, ethacrynic acid, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, mannitolo, mersalil, spironolattone, triamterene and related substances.

peptide Hormones, glycoprotein and analogues

Gonadotropina corionica, ACTH, GH and respective releasing factors; erythropoietin (EPO).

Betabloccanti

Only for certain sports: acebutololo, alprenololo, atenololo, bisoprololo, bunololo, metoprololo, oxprenololo, propranolol, sotalolo.

masking agents

Epitestosterone, probenecid.

Blood Doping

Blood Administration, red blood cells or blood products.

THE aNABOLIC:

The anabolic drugs are used as doping agents for their actions on General skeletal muscles (development of mass), induced changes in the chemical composition of the skeletal muscles (glycogen content and electrolytes), and for general action on the bone and joint. They determine numerous harmful side effects and toxic and in particular on the genital sphere both male and female, alterations of liver function, alterations of the skin and changes in the composition of skeletal muscles.

PRICES AND OFFERS WINTER SPORTS

MATERIALS, ACCESSORIES AND APPAREL

SHOP

SKI MOUNTAINEERING AMAZON.it
SCI ALPINO AMAZON.it
BACKGROUND AMAZON.it
FREERIDE / SNOWBOARD AMAZON.it
ACTION CAM AMAZON.it
AVALANCHE TRANSCEIVER off piste Safety AMAZON.it
SNOW TIRES AND CHAINS AMAZON.it

PEPTIDE HORMONES, Glycoprotein AND SIMILAR:

This group of medicaments is somewhat dismogeneo as it includes medicaments not pharmacologically closely related among themselves.

Peptide and glycoprotein hormones are corticotropin, chorionic ganadotropina, growth hormone, and erythropoietin, and all have serious side effects on the human organism, in particular cause alterations of the saline water metabolism, skin changes, psychological changes, diabetes mellitus, steroid myopathy, Obesity in Buffalo, osteoporosis, steroid withdrawal syndrome, syndrome Cushingiatrogena, syndrome ipercorticosteroidea, ulcer gastroduedenale. In addition, the growth hormone causes alterations in the intermediary metabolism, somatic alterations, antibody formation, giantism, sindrome acromegalica, Jakob syndrome in.

The ERYTHROPOIETIN:

Erythropoietin can be considered either according to its important physiological role in the body of the athlete, both as a dopant substance.

During the training sessions and bottom races athletes induce specific sites organismic a protracted decrease in perziale pressure of oxygen that stimulates erythropoiesis very complex mechanism that involves various biochemical factors including erythropoietin which activates the conversion of cells in the bone marrow progenitor in subsequent elements up to the formation of red blood cells. The normal course of erythropoiesis, however, requires a good availability of iron, of various vitamins, and some trace elements. The erythropoietin can be used for therapeutic purposes in anemic patients with kidney failure and undergoing hemodialysis, but such treatments have been carried out on athletes, unfortunately, the purpose of doping artificially altering performance.

Erythropoietin determines an increase in the mass of circulating red blood cells which can lead to the onset of thrombosis due to increased blood viscosity.

As with all drug treatments that are carried out on athletes the purpose of doping, also for erythropoietin they have taken these improvements developed on the sick to transfer acriticamenti of athletes healthy and addattati the provision, however, with serious consequences such as thrombosis, brain damage, the anticipation years of age dependent degenerative changes. This is all compounded by the fact that these pathologies are instaurerebbero many years after treatment, thus making it difficult to establish a precise relationship between cause and effect, but still being able to constitute a very serious potential side effect, although late.

The BLOOD tRANSFUSION:

The malicious administration of erythropoietin is the continuation of the practice of doping dell'emotrasfusione so there is a wide disparity of opinions about the effectiveness in underlying performance. In particular, one speaks of autoemotrasfusione if using the blood collected previously by the same athlete then reintegrarglielo in conjunction with the race.

Numerous again damaging side effects such as hemolysis, hemosiderosis, hyperthermia, hemolytic jaundice, nephritis, allergic reactions, hemolytic shock that often occur after a long time.

and diuretics:

It can commonly define diuretics those medicaments which, regardless of their mechanism of action, increased diuresis, namely the production of urinary fluid by the kidney tissue. In sports field such substances are used to shorten the time of elimination of doping medicaments, to dilute the same to make it difficult for urine feedback, to change the body weight aking this is a determining factor prestazione.I most common harmful and toxic side effects:

changes state acid-base blood and tissues, changes in blood and urinary concentration of some important functional components such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, football, phosphates, bicarbonati, uric acid,alterations in the central and peripheral nervous system, allergic reactions, dehydration,alterations of the endocrine system, formation of kidney stones, changes in the metabolism of sugars and fats.

THE EXCITING psychoactive:

Quesi drugs have been studied and developed for purposes far removed from those for which it makes misuse in sport, simultaneously affect several processes of the central nervous system and, in different doses, determine diverse effects on human behavior. Based on their effects are distinguished:

analeptics, that stimulate the central nervous system with specific reference to the respiratory and circulatory centers, narcotic analgesics capable of suppressing the sensitivity to pain, anxiolytics, antidepressants,antiepileptic,antipsicoti, psychedelic and hallucinogenic, psicostimolanti, mood stabilizers. The most common stimulant drugs are amphetamines, caffeine, ephedrine, cocaine and many others whose side effects are anything but underestimated . Antidepressant drugs with stimulant effect on the central nervous system instead already causing side effects at normal therapeutic doses,causing side effects such as hallucinations, changes in blood pressure, convulsions, excessive sweating, dizziness, cardiac rhythm disturbances, headache, nausea, spasm of the bronchi, cough, He retched.

The NARCOTICS AND LOCAL ANESTHETICS:

Side effects , harmful and toxic narcotics are as follows: deterioration adaptation of 'eye in focusing tied to the malfunction of the lens,alteration of the blood pressure, analgesia,asthenia, libido block,bradicardia,headache, dismorrea, decrease in the cough reflex, pulmonary edema, oligomenorrea,etc., remember between said products morphine and methadone usually used in medicine painkiller purpose.

The side effects of anesthetics on the other hand you have especially on the nervous system as they induce a reduction and loss of pain sensitivity, thermal, contact and pressure, without affecting the state of consciousness and vital functions generali.Gli local anesthetics do not rule out toxic side effects especially if, l 'anesthetic passes into the bloodstream.

EFFECTS, SUMMARY TABLE:

Stimulants

Do not improve performance, but they give a feeling of well-being, which often results in a higher yield during the race.

anabolic Hormones

Less and less used in competitive sports, where the controls are strict, But rampant in bodybuilding gyms. Many serious side effects: liver damage, prostate and cardiovascular system, sterility, impotence, psychiatric syndromes, feminization in men and masculinization in women.

peptide Hormones

Much used as undetectable with current allowed investigations. They include:
GH (Growth Hormone): It used heavily in athletics and bodybuilders, this substance increases the strength and size of muscles. Among the risks of abuse are acromegaly, diabetes, hypertension, increased incidence of tumors, morbo di Creutzfeldt-Jakob.
GF1 (insulin-like growth factor): produced by the liver especially in puberty, It is one of doping substances more recently introduced. It has the same effects (also side) Growth Hormone.
EPO (erythropoietin): hormone normally secreted by the kidney, It stimulates the bone marrow to produce red blood cells, thereby increasing the availability of oxygen. And’ in vogue for a basic aerobic sports, such as cycling and cross-country skiing. Increases blood viscosity, and thus facilitates thrombosis and embolism. It can also lead to chronic renal failure and hypertension. In order to contain abuse, in two sports are scheduled blood tests surprise. In cross-country skiing it is measured the concentration of hemoglobin, which must not exceed 16,6 g / dL for women and 18,5 For the men. In cycling we measure the hematocrit. limit values: 50 percent for men, 48 for women. Who overcomes them, It is to stand for 15 days, then it presents itself for a new test. Only if the value is within the permitted limits can reenter competition.

masking Substances

Allow it to take high doses of prohibited molecules without that they can be verified with laboratory tests. The most common are diuretics, probenecid and epitestosterone.

Betabloccanti

Antitremorigeni widely used in the shooting and in synchronized swimming.

SKIING AND DOPING:

Unfortunately, even in cross country doping problem it has characterized the last decade even though no Italian athlete has never been found positive in doping control.

From a search carried out in Ferrara at the University Center directed by Professor Conconi it was seized a file called “epo” which also include the names of skiing athletes. From a careful analysis, however,, emerge numerous technical inconsistencies and method, that take scientific validity at work, lay bare possibility of a resounding false.

Maurilio De Zolt athlete symbol cross-country claims to have been followed by Conconi but with lawful techniques instead emphasized the goodness of training carried out in this period. Manuela Di Centa says instead that he had never taken any banned substance, and that Professor Conconi merely prepare a program of preparation and analytical controls during the various phases of training, to verify that the health conditions enable it to withstand the load of work scheduled.

Cross-country skiing, as in all endurance sports, the use of doping concerns mostly the blood.

II Blood doping is the administration to a blood athlete, of red blood cells and related blood products.

The only outstanding case of doping in cross-country skiing is the case of the Russian champion L. Egorova, disqualified for 2 years but regularly returned to competition…. Many instead suspicions and rumors….

CONCLUSIONS:

To combat the big problem doping in sport we believe it is essential the commitment, not only of F.S.N., but also the governments that sometimes ignore the needs of the sports world.

The C.O.N.I. definitely at the forefront of this struggle, They have already been carried out thousands of checks, but unfortunately medical science is almost always later than controls. The school will definitely have an important role on the athletes' training, because we think it is a fact of sports culture.





by Omar Oprandi